Microsoft can and should be credited with being the first of the mainstream OS makers to announce and then implement system-wide instant search functionality in its operating systems. And now, years later, Windows Vista/7, and 2008 users (and XP and 2003 users, via an add-on) know the wonders of what's now called Windows Search. It works, and it works great.
That said, Windows Search also supports some far more advanced usage. And that capability is outlined in this handy article on the Windows Web site:
Windows Search Advanced Query Syntax
Once you have Windows Search for Windows Vista or Windows XP, you might be wondering how you can be even more efficient when it comes to finding files and e-mail on your PC. Advanced Query Syntax (AQS) can help you do just that. Using AQS, you can quickly define and narrow your searches for even more targeted results.
You can narrow your searches using a variety of keywords, or search parameters, which can restrict your query to specific locations, specific file types or properties within those types, or specific "file kinds." File kinds are displayed at the top of the Windows Search Explorer.
The example tables below give you an overview of syntax that can be used with Windows Search 4.0, Windows Vista, or Windows Desktop Search 3.01 for Windows XP, including the properties that can be added to your search terms to narrow and refine your results.
Excellent resource. Thanks to Demetrius M. for the tip.